technology year 2001:

card example: "VisionTek GeForce3 Graphics Accelerator"

context: "If you recall the launch of DirectX 8, NVIDIA pounced on the arrival of the new API with its GeForce3 graphics accelerator. The GeForce3 wasn't a spectacular performance improvement over GeForce2 Ultra, but it supported pixel and vertex shaders in hardware, making it the first DX8 card on the market. NVIDIA then followed GeForce3 up with GeForce3 Titanium approximately seven months later."

"March 2, 2001 - VisionTek First to PC Market with GeForce3-Based Graphics Accelerator: First Card Powered by NVIDIA's Groundbreaking Programmable GPU"

"October 1, 2001 - VisionTek First to PC Market with GeForce3 Ti ("Titanium") GPUs:
VisionTek today announced the availability of three additions to their best-selling line of Xtasy(tm) graphics accelerators. Featuring the new Titanium(tm) graphics processing units by NVIDIAR Corporation, GeForce3 Ti 500, GeForce3 Ti 200 and GeForce2 Ti are the new processors driving VisionTek's Xtasy 6964, Xtasy 6564, and Xtasy 5864, respectively. All three products are expected to ship to Best Buy, CompUSA, Electronics Boutique, Fry's and Gamestop during the first few weeks of October 2001.

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BestBuy online product details, October 2001:

$260 (as of October 2001):
VisionTek GeForce3 Graphics Accelerator
(64 MB, AGP, 350 MHz video memory clock speed)

Model: 72404

This 64MB DDR graphics accelerator produces stunningly realistic 3D graphics...

- " nfiniteFX " engine
- "Lightspeed Memory Architecture"
- "4X AGP with Fast Writes, AGP 2X-compatible


Product Details
Graphic Processor NVIDIA GeForce3
Number of Processors 2
Key Features
Interface AGP 4x
Compatibility PC
Installed Memory 64 MB
Memory Tech DDR SGRAM *
Memory Data Width 256-bit
Installed Memory / Technology 64 MB (DDR SGRAM*)
Technical Features
Form Factor Plug-in card
Maximum 2D Resolution (at 32-bit color) 2048 x 1536
Maximum 3D Resolution (at 32-bit color) 1920 x 1440
Supports MPEG-1, MPEG-2 Yes (also AVI)
DVD Decoding Yes
TV Out Yes
S-Video Output No
System Requirements
Operating System Microsoft Windows 95
Microsoft Windows 98
Warranty 3 Years
MPN (Model Number) 72404
Product ID 20171418

SGRAM - Synchronous Graphics RAM (SGRAM) is clock-synchronized random access memory that is used for video memory.
It is relatively low-cost video memory. It uses masked write, which enables selected data to be modified in a single operation rather as a sequence of read, update, and write operations. It also uses block write, which allows data for background or foreground image fills to be handled more efficiently. SGRAM is single-ported. Its special features are what make it a moderately fast form of video memory.
The Matrox Mystique is an example of a video card that uses SGRAM.

RAMDAC - Random Access Memory Digital-to-Analog Converter (RAMDAC) is a single chip on video adapter cards.
The RAMDAC's role is to convert digitally encoded images into analog signals that can be displayed by a monitor.
A RAMDAC actually consists of four different components - SRAM to store the color map and three digital-to-analog converters (DACs),
one for each of the monitor's red, green, and blue electron guns.