Linguistic fallacies, or fallacies in the language, are due to the ambiguity of or lack of preciseness in the words or phrases used to express ideas. It is this ambiguity that leads one into making wrong conclusions or inferences.
There are six linguistic fallacies: equivocation, amphiboly or amphibology, accent, composition, division, and figure of speech or parallel-word construction. Composition and division are sometimes treated as one fallacy; we have found a very good discussion on the difference of the two.
Definition: [a fallacy that] results from using a word or phrase in more than one sense, playing with a double meaning, or changing the connotation or meaning of a word in the course of the argument, all the while implying the a [sic] the word means exactly the same thing all the way through the argument. 
Only a man can reason. Since Mary is not a man, she cannot reason. 
A plane is a carpenter's tool, and the Boeing 737 is a plane, hence the Boeing 737 is a carpenter's tool. 
2. Amphibology / Amphiboly
Definition: [a fallacy which] is committed by using a statement which allows two interpretations either because of the physical grammatical structure (syntax) of the sentence, or because a word or phrase can have two possible meanings, causing the entire statement to be understood in two different ways. 
Definition: [a fallacy that occurs when] emphasis is used to suggest a meaning different from the actual content of the proposition. 
My spouse must be cheating on me -- he told me "I don't really love you now." 
"They think it will work." vs. "They think it will work." 
Definition: [a fallacy characterized by] arguing (a) that what is true of each part of a whole is also (necessarily) true of the whole itself, or (b) what is true of some parts is also (necessary) true of the whole itself. 
The human body is made up of atoms, which are invisible. Therefore, the human body is invisible. 
A car made from the highest quality part from every other car in the world would be a really great automobile. 
Definition: [a fallacy characterized by] arguing that what is true of a whole is (a) also (necessarily) true of its parts and/or (b) also true of some of its parts. 
The community of Pacific Palisades is extremely wealthy. Therefore, every person living there is (must be) extremely wealthy. 
People are made out of atoms. People are visible. Therefore, atoms are visible. 
6. Figure of Speech or Parallel-Word Construction
Definition: [a fallacy characterized by] ambiguities due to the fact that different words in Greek (and in Latin) may have different cases or genders even though the case endings or gender endings are the same. Since this is not widespread in other languages or since it coincides with other fallacies (e.g. equivocation, see above) writers tend to interpret it very broadly. 
"Activists have been labeled as idealists, sadists, anarchists, communists, and just about any name that can come to mind ending in -ist, like samok-ist, saba-ist, bad-ist, and of course, who could forget devil-ist?"  (The writer has the unsaid argument that any name ending in -ist is viewed as "trouble-makers" by our society.)
An introductory book on philosophy has an appendix entitle "List of Isms" the proceeds to list the schools of thought in philosophy.  (Not all words that end in -ism is a school of thought: take for example, syllogism.)
Composition vs. Division
These two fallacies could be sometimes difficult to differentiate from each other. We have found a very good discussion on how to separate one from the other.
The form of the fallacy of composition is the following:
All of the parts of the object O
have the property P.
Therefore, O has the property P.
(Where the property P is one which does not distribute from parts to a whole.) 
While the form of the fallacy of division is the following:
The object O has the property P.
Therefore, all of the parts of O have the property P.
(Where the property P is one which does not distribute from a whole to its parts.) 
Therefore, to distinguish composition from division, you need only note the direction of the conclusion. If the arguments proceed from the members of a whole, concluding that the whole is such-and-such because the parts it is made up is such-and-such, the fallacy is of composition.
On the other hand, when we conclude that a thing is such-and-such because it is a member of a group which is such-and-such, we are committing a fallacy of division.
Always take note however that the property must not be expansive (parts --> whole) for composition or dissective (whole --> parts) for division. If these are not satisfied then we do not have a fallacy.
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 Alburo, Kaira Zoe, "Making Pigs Fly: Debunking the myths about student activism", Today's Carolinian, Vol. 20, No. 1, March 2003, p. 15.
 Sorry, I forgot the title and author of the book.
Author: Isles, Vincent "Bentong" S.
from URL: http://bentong.topcities.com/articles/lingfall.htm
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